} } padding-bottom: 2em; } Read more >>, /* ----------------------------------------- */ .ldc-table a.box-reports::before, border: solid 1px #4d4d4d; } background-color: #414042; footer li a { Enrich your vocabulary with the English Definition dictionary div#sidebar-right.col-md-3 ul#menu-cdp-menu.menu > li:before, padding-top: 1em; content: "\f274"; border-bottom: dotted .3em #ccc; font-style: italic; } In response to the need expressed by the UN General Assembly, an economic vulnerability index (EVI) has been defined by the Committee for Development Policy. } .ldc-table a.box-support, .ldc-table-wrapper .ldc-tab4 { color: #000; border-bottom: 1px solid #069!important; height:35px; width:170px; text-align:center;} table.country-reports { background-size: contain; #content .responsive-tabs-wrapper ul.responsive-tabs__list li { .ldc-table a.box-glance::before, padding: 0 10px; } BACKGROUND SOCIAL VULNERABILITY ASSESSMENT TOOLS FOR CLIMATE CHANGE AND DRR PROGRAMMING 9 font-style: normal; .col-md-5ths, .member-table li, #content .responsive-tabs-wrapper .responsive-tabs .responsive-tabs__panel { background-color:#4f81bd; .ldc-table-wrapper .ldc-line1 {border-top: 2px solid #91C2F2!important; width: 100%;} .col-sm-5ths { Chambers and Conway’s definition states that: “A livelihood comprises the capabilities, assets (stores, resources, ... Economic vulnerability should be measured separately from, and in addition There are broadly two approaches to understand Macroeconomic vulnerability of a country. border: 0; content: '\f0da'; font-size: 2em; } Health 6. } content: "\f08b"; background-color: #4f81bd; footer h6 { padding: 4px 0; content: "\f061"; #atstbx2, #atstbx3, #atstbx4, #atstbx5 { Social groups which are most vulnerable to poverty : Scheduled caste and scheduled tribes. .ldc-table-wrapper .ldc-cbar5 { color: #fff; background-color: #369; } } content: none; EVI, in addition to income per capita and human capital, is one of the three complementary criteria a country needs to meet in order to be perceived as a LDC, and consequently it cannot be the sole criterion for countries wishing to avoid exiting the LDC list. background-color: #f2f2f2; padding-left: 15px; color: gray; .ldc-table-wrapper .ldc-ht {color:#069;} } background-image: url(https://www.dev.un.org/development/desa/dpad/wp-content/uploads/sites/45/bg-world1.png); text-decoration: underline; } .ldc-dg { a.box-lnob::before { background-color:#4f81bd; .borderless li { .ldc-table-wrapper .ldc-lbar4 {color:#000;background-color: #F0F5E6;} This method of defining vulnerability in terms of inherent features and resilience in terms of policy-induced changes has a number of advantages. } .ldc-table-wrapper .ldc-cbar4 { color: #fff; background-color: #360; text-align:center; font-size: 1.1em; font-family: 'Oswald',Helvetica,sans-serif; font-weight: 700;} } .ldc-table-wrapper .ldc-yt {color:#069;} img.author-headshot { .ldc-table-wrapper .ldc-ver-dotted {border-left:2px dotted #000!important;} padding: 8px!important; /* Share Box Fix */ } } padding: 8px!important; padding: 20px 20px; .ldc_profiles { The concept of social vulnerability has been incorporated into both the hazards and economic literature. height: 1px; SEVI Socio-Economic Vulnerability Index SoVI Social Vulnerability Index SVA Social Vulnerability Analysis UNDP United Nations Development Programme. border: 1px solid #f2f2f2!important; #content .responsive-tabs-wrapper ul.responsive-tabs__list { font-weight: normal; color:#ccc; Education Additionally, vulnerability is seen as being multi-dimensional and differential, scale dependent, and dynamic in nature. .ldc-table-wrapper .ldc-lv {border-left:1px solid #369!important;} .ldc-table a.box-inclusion::before { .ldc-table a.box-review::before, Abstract In this paper, economic vulnerability is defined as the exposure of an economy to exogenous shocks, arising out of economic openness, while economic resilience is defined as the policy-induced ability of an economy to withstand or recover from the effects of such shocks. vertical-align: middle; .ldc-table-wrapper .ldc-lbar {background-color:#ccc;} border: 1px solid #f2f2f2; a.box-prod-capacity::before { .ldc-table a.box-graduation::before { margin-bottom: 0; .ldc-table a.box-support::before, display:none; .borderless table { padding: 0 10px; } padding: .3em .8em; .ldc_profiles p { It evaluates 42 social, economic and environmental factors … font-weight: 700; padding: 0 10px; font-family: 'FontAwesome'; They identify which regions, sectors or system components are particularly affected by climate change, and where there is an urgent need to adapt. table#ldc-eligibility, font-size: .8em; color:#ccc; } font-size: 12px; div.ldc-table-wrapper .ldc-box {width: 120px; padding: 10px; border: 2px solid gray; margin: 0;} #ldc-eligibility td { .country-reports th.ldc-ind-underline, .country-reports td.ldc-ind-underline { vertical-align: top; #footer-wrapper { .ldc-out:before { width: 100%; In developing countries the MVI is determined by various structural conditions which expose an economy to financial shocks. .lyris-stacked-signup header, } This index is designed to be used with economic and social vulnerability indices to provide insights into the processes that can negatively influence the sustainable development of … #body-footer-text { float: left; a.box-global-gov, .ldc-table-wrapper .ldc-ut {color:#069;} } .ldc-table a.box-criteria, } .ldc-table a.box-transition::before { .ldc-table { } padding: .2em .6em 0 0; content: "\f061"; Weighting and aggregation Indicators (represented by variables) are represented padding-right: .6em; width: 20%; .ldc-table-wrapper .ldc-cbar3 { color: #fff; background-color: #f93; text-align:center;} The two purposes are presented as complementary. /* Extra spacing for reading blocks */ } /* Footer */ td.ldc-arrowhead span { Economic vulnerability refers to risks caused by external/exogenous shocks to system of production, distribution and consumption. line-height: 1.6em; .ldc-table a.box-reports::before { .ldc-table a.box-graduation, Economic and Environmental Vulnerability Index (EVI) Rationale. } } requiring immediate food, water, shelter sanitation or medical assistance), Calculated by dividing the annual number of victims by the total population of the country over a period of 20 years and then taking the simple average, Calculated by the CDP secretariat on the basis of data on the total population from UNPD in its, Highly variable agricultural production is indicative of high vulnerability to natural shocks and often reflects the impacts of natural shocks, including droughts and disturbances in rainfall patterns, Defined as the standard deviation of the difference between agricultural production and its 20-year trend, Calculated by estimating the trend of agricultural production by a mixed-trend linear regression and using the standard deviation of the differences between trend and actual values as a measure of instability, Calculated by the CDP secretariat based on data reported annually by the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) in its. @media (min-width: 768px) { border-top: dotted .3em #ccc; Through such an index "diverse issues can be combined into a standardised framework...making comparisons possible". content: "\f0ac"; .ldc-table .row { } .ldc-color-orange {color: #f93;} padding: 8px!important; /* cdp ldc tables */ color: #fff; .ldc-table-wrapper .ldc-bar3 {background-color:#ccc;} .col-xs-5ths, .ldc-incl:before { table#ldc-reporting, #ldc-reporting th, #ldc-reporting td { a.box-ldcs::before, .ldc-table-wrapper .ldc-tab5 { color: #000; background-color:#E9F3FC; border-top:1px solid #369!important;border-bottom:1px solid #369!important;border-right:1px solid #369!important;} } float: left; color:#4f81bd; display: none; color:#ccc; } color: #4d4d4d; .ldc-table-wrapper .ldc-tt {color:#069;border-bottom: 2px solid #91C2F2!important;} /* Content Template: Page Template Default - start */ } color:#ccc; .ldc-lbar4 { Edit Classic editor; Examples are "environmental vulnerability index" and "Economic Vulnerability Index". } margin-top: 0!important; } text-align: center; a.box-dev-coop, } a.box-nat-reviews::before { .ldc-table-wrapper .ldc-content {color:#000;} float: left; text-align: center; } #content .responsive-tabs-wrapper .responsive-tabs .responsive-tabs__list__item--active, font-family: 'FontAwesome'; /* Body Footer */ cursor: pointer; Various variables have been utilised to measure economic vulnerability. font-weight: normal; .ldc-table-wrapper th, .ldc-table-wrapper td, .ldc-table-wrapper table { padding: 4px!important; border:solid #f2f2f2 1px !important;} } Economic Vulnerability Indices Economic vulnerability indices have been constructed by various authors, including Briguglio (1995, 1997), Briguglio and Galea (2003), Commonwealth Secretariat –Atkins et al (2000), United Nations Committee for Development Policy (2006). .borderless td, line-height: 17px; } #content .responsive-tabs-wrapper .responsive-tabs .responsive-tabs__panel { 3.1) in the gross value added of a country, Calculated by dividing the value added of agriculture, hunting, forestry and fishing by the total gross value added of all sectors of the economy, Reported annually by the United Nations Statistics Division in its, Provides information on countries' vulnerability to coastal impacts (including sea level rise and storm surges) associated with climate change, Measures the share of the population in a country that lives in low elevated coastal zones, defined as areas contiguous to the coast below a certain elevation threshold (currently 5 metres), Calculated by dividing the number of people living in areas contiguous to the coast with an elevation of less than five metres by the total population of the country, Highly variable export earnings cause fluctuations in production, employment and the availability of foreign exchange, with negative consequences for sustainable economic growth and development, Defined as the standard deviation of the difference between the value of annual export earnings and its 20-year trend, Calculated by estimating the trend of export earnings by a mixed-trend linear regression and using the standard deviation of the differences between trend and actual values, weighted with the latest three‐year trade dependency (the ratio of exports plus imports to GDP), as measure of instability, Calculated by the CDP secretariat based on data reported annually by the United Nations Statistics Division in its, Provides information on a country’s vulnerability to natural shocks, in particular the human impact of disasters associated with these shocks, Measures the share of population who are victims of disasters, defined as people killed are affected (i.e. .ldc-table-wrapper .ldc-lvh {border-left:1px solid #369!important; border-bottom:1px solid #369!important;} The termsVULNERABILITYandRISKare often used to describe the potential (adverse) effects of climate change on ecosystems, infrastructure, economic sectors,socialgroups,communitiesandregions. } font-size: 14px; /* ----------------------------------------- */ margin: 0 0.4em 0 -0.8em; content: none; .ldc-table-wrapper .ldc-mi {border-bottom: 1px solid #ADC2D6!important;} width: 100%; footer { The characteristics determined by physical, social, economic and environmental factors or processes which increase the susceptibility of an individual, a community, assets or systems to the impacts of hazards. td.ldc-larrow-down { The Index of Economic Resources (IER). padding-left: 0; .ldc_profiles td { } } font-size: 2em; an index of economic vulnerability is regarded as a challenging, but worthwhile, exercise. width: 20%; div#sidebar-right.col-md-3 .menu { vertical-align: top; .ldc-table-wrapper .ldc-cbar1 { color: #fff; background-color: #369; } position: relative; } .ldc-table a.box-glance, Agriculture, hunting, forestry and fishing are particularly subject to natural and economic shocks, Defined as the percentage share of the agriculture, hunting, forestry and fishing sectors (categories A+B in ISIC Rev. #ldc-eligibility td { content: "\f060"; Each index is a summary of a different subset of Census variables and focuses on a different aspect of socio-economic advantage and disadvantage. ECONOMIC VULNERABILITY AND RESILIENCE CONCEPTS AND MEASUREMENTS1 Lino Briguglio, Gordon Cordina, Nadia Farrugia and Stephanie Vella Economics Department, University of Malta Abstract. .ldc-lbar5 { font-size: 3em; font-family: 'FontAwesome'; .ldc-table-wrapper .ldc-sm {color:#000;} Because of this complex definition, the VAF uses a series of community-based width: 3em; margin: .5em 15px; /* Content Template: Page Template Default - end */ padding: 0!important; a.box-nat-reviews, .ldc-table-wrapper .ldc-st {color:#069;border-bottom: 2px solid #069!important;} /* Tabby style for Resources Section */ The present paper, which refers to this index, first examines how a structural economic vulnerability index can be designed for the low-income countries in particular. } text-align: left; .ldc-table-wrapper .ldc-lbar5 {color:#000;background-color: #E9F3FC;} #sidebar-right .widget { padding: .5em 0; } content: "\f060"; ECOSOC and the General Assembly of an economic vulnerability criterion --among other criteria-- for identifying LDCs. In response to the need expressed by the UN General Assembly, an economic vulnerability index (EVI) has been defined by the Committee for Development Policy. economic vulnerability and nurtured resilience, respectively. vertical-align: middle; font-weight: normal; } .ldc-table-wrapper .ldc-bw {color:#fff;background-color:#4f81bd;} a.box-nat-reviews::before, margin: 6px; } /* Bootstrap addin for 5 columns */ Ferdi has contributed in the past to the definition of the Economic Vulnerability Index (EVI), which is one of the three criteria used by the United Nations to identify Least Developed … Vulnerability is a measure, which describes the greater probability of certain communities of becoming, or remaining, poor in the coming years. The (successor) Committee for Development Policy, in anticipation of the 2000 review of the list of LDCs, constructed a composite Economic Vulnerability Index (EVI)2. font-size: 86%; .ldc-table-wrapper .ldc-tg {color:#fff;background-color:#360;} #sidebar-right header h3 { font-weight: 700; Economic vulnerability index " is one of the criteria used by the United Nations Committee for Development Policy, an advisory body to the United Nations Economic and Social Council in the identification of Least Developed Countries. } The results also show that the significant variables affecting households’ vulnerability to economic padding: .5em 0; color:#fff; } Food Security 3. background: #f2f2f2; Economic Vulnerability Index. " } margin: .1em!important; states” and his earlier work on a economic vulnerability index, work on a social vulnerability index by Cutter et al. } .ldc-table .box:hover { The EVI is a measure of structural vulnerability to economic and environmental shocks It recalls the conceptual and empirical grounds of the index, considers the structure of the present EVI, its sensitivity to methodological choices with respect to averaging, as well as related possible improvements, and briefly compares the levels and trends of EVI in various country groups, using a new database from a ‘retrospective EVI’. #sidebar-right div ul li:before { @media (min-width: 1200px) { width: 20%; .ldc-bw { } The proportion of people below poverty line is not same for all social groups and economic categories in India. The new Climate Change Vulnerability Index (CCVI), released by global risks advisory firm Maplecroft, enables organisations to identify areas of risk within their operations, supply chains and investments. margin: 0 1.2em 1.5em 0; div#sidebar-right.col-md-3 ul#menu-ldc-menu.menu > li:before { } And second, EVI is to be used, in addition to other traditional measures, as a criterion for aid allocation between developing countries. #content #rss-6 ul, margin-bottom: 1em; .ldc-table a.box-criteria::before, In this paper, economic vulnerability is defined as the exposure of an economy to #content #rss-6 ul { 1999. /* sidebar menu li */ padding-left: 0; font-family: 'Oswald',Helvetica,sans-serif; background-color: #efefef; /*RSS Feeds*/ The Economic Vulnerability Index is a composition of the following eight indicators: 1) population size, 2) remoteness, 3) merchandise … color: #000; background-position: left top; /* Boxes for cdp page */ } Instability of exports of goods and services, Share of population in low elevated coastal zones, Share of agriculture, forestry and fishing in GDP, Note by the CDP Secretariat on measuring remoteness for the identification of LDCs (August 2015), Covid-19 threatens to have devastating effects on the least developed countries (LDC). Specifically, economic vulnerability is the likelihood of a system being affected negatively by shocks or perturbation (Naudé et al., 2009). /* ----------------------------------------- */, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Secretariat of the Committee for Development Policy, University of East Anglia Climatic Research Unit, Center for International Earth Science Information Network at Columbia University, Centre d'Etudes Prospectives et d'Informations Internationales (CEPII), National Accounts Main Aggregates database, National Accounts Main Aggregates Database, Economic and Environmental Vulnerability Indicators, Graduation Preparation & Smooth Transition, Preparing for graduation: meeting in Lao PDR ahead of CDP Triennial Review, UNCDF-OECD Report Focuses on Potential of Blended Finance for LDCs’ Response to Covid-19, LDCs and climate ambition: the Thimphu Ambition Summit, LDCs at the WTO: Proposals for extension of LDC support measures for a period after graduation, Office of ECOSOC Support and Coordination, Division for Social Policy and Development, Division for Public Administration and Development Management, Drylands are particularly vulnerable to climate change and other shocks (desertification, land degradation, drought, wildfires, heat stress). font-size:1.1em; Economic vulnerability is defined as the potential impact of hazards on economic assets and processes (i.e., business interruption, secondary effects such as increased poverty and job loss). padding: 0; .ldc-table a.box-history::before, For instance, indicators from the physical sciences can be combined with … Macroeconomic Vulnerability Index which adds up rate of inflation, current account deficit and fiscal deficit of a country is quite helpful in comparing countries across years. In this paper, the focus of economic vulnerability is on the structural characteristics of small states a.box-lnob::before, border-bottom: #4d8ec9 solid 2px; margin-top: 1em; With a value of 0.703, the economic vulnerability index shows that households are about 70% vulnerable to economic shocks. content: "\f090"; .ldc-table a.box-reports, } .col-md-5ths { .ldc-table-wrapper .ldc-mi1 {border-bottom: 1px solid #cccccc!important;} padding-left: .6em; content: "\f234"; content: "\f1c0"; .ldc-table a.box-graduation::before, /* ----------------------------------------- */ .ldc-table-wrapper .ldc-tab2 { color: #000; background-color: #e1e1e1; border: 2px solid #fff!important; height:35px; width:33%; text-align:center;} .borderless th, #content .rpwe-time { Typically, the index is a composite of multiple quantitative indicators that via some formula, delivers a single numerical result. padding-top: 10px; .member-table th, } } .ldc-lbar3 { .ldc-table-wrapper .ldc-cb {color:#000;background-color:#D6E0EB;} } Literature from this perspective focuses on the multidimensionality of poverty … border-radius: 4px; float: left; font-family: 'FontAwesome'; .ldc-table a.box-review::before { .member-table ul, .ldc-table-wrapper .ldc-tab6 { color: #000; background-color:#E9F3FC; border-top:1px solid #369!important;border-bottom:1px solid #369!important;} margin: 0!important; .ldc-table-wrapper .ldc-ti {color:#000;color:#000;background-color:#E9F3FC;text-align:center;} } } Shelter 5. .ldc-table a.box-criteria::before { display: block; line-height: .7em; } .ldc-table-wrapper .ldc-dg {color:#ccc;background-color:#4f81bd;} line-height: .6em; border: 1px solid #4f81bd; .ldc-table-wrapper .ldc-lbar7 {color:#000!important;background-color: #F7FAFC;} } UNISDR Terminology (2017) Vulnerability is one of the defining components of disaster risk. .country-reports th.ldc-ind-icon, .country-reports td.ldc-ind-icon { .ldc-table-wrapper .ldc-lbar3 {color:#fff;text-align:center;background-color: #4f81bd;} Economic Vulnerability Index Rationale Measures of poverty, deprivation, food insecurity do ... definition of the dimension (likewise with the dimensions and sub-indices). .ldc-table-wrapper .ldc-th {color:#000;color:#333;text-align:center;} float: left; } .ldc-table-wrapper .ldc-cbar6 { color: #fff; background-color: #f93; } } color:#739900; .col-lg-5ths { } padding-right: 15px; #content .responsive-tabs-wrapper .responsive-tabs .responsive-tabs__list__item--active:hover, .ldc-table-wrapper .ldc-bar2 { color: #000; background-color: #91C2F2;} .ldc-table-wrapper .ldc-lbar2 { color: #000;} .ldc-table-wrapper .ldc-cg {color:#000;background-color:#D6E0CC;} content: "\f1da"; Vulnerability and risk assessment is compulsory in order to plan and implement adaptation measures, and to prioritize resources. content: ""; border-radius: 5px; color:#4f81bd; } footer h6:after { } vertical-align: top; padding-bottom: 10px; footer a:hover { #ldc-eligibility th, Learn more in: Investigating the Economic Vulnerability Factors of Emerging Markets After the Global Financial Crisis of 2008 With … a.box-ldcs, div.rssSummary { hr.ldc-table-wrapper .ldc-light {height: 2px;color: #91C2F2;background-color: #91C2F2;border: none;} .col-xs-5ths { The paper examines how EVI can be used for international development policy, underlining two main purposes: first—the purpose for which EVI was initially designed—is the identification of the least developed countries (LDCs) that are allowed to receive some preferential treatment in aid and trade matters. #content ul.rpwe-ul { A retrospective Economic Vulnerability Index. border: 1px solid #4f81bd; The SVI indicates the relative vulnerability of every U.S. Census tract. } .ldc-table-wrapper .ldc-ug {color:#999;} content: "\f08e"; a.box-dev-coop::before { #content .responsive-tabs-wrapper ul.responsive-tabs__list li:before { .ldc-table-wrapper .ldc-cbar8 { color: #fff; background-color: #369; } font-family: 'FontAwesome'; The index was developed through consultation and collaboration with countries, institutions and experts across the globe. 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